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Chapters

0:00 Introduction
0:05 fatigue
0:52 Increased thirst
1:13 Recurrent infections
1:31 Slow healing sores
1:49 Dental issues
2:16 Headaches
2:37 Blurred vision
3:02 Frequent urination
3:21 Tingling hands and feet
3:46 Loss of appetite

Diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) over a prolonged period of time.[12][13] Symptoms often include frequent urination, increased thirst and increased appetite.[2] If left untreated, diabetes can cause many health complications.[2] Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.[3] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, damage to the nerves, damage to the eyes, and cognitive impairment.[2][5]

Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin, or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.[14] Insulin is a hormone which is responsible for helping glucose from food get into cells to be used for energy.[15] There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:[2]

Type 1 diabetes results from failure of the pancreas to produce enough insulin due to loss of beta cells.[2] This form was previously referred to as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” or “juvenile diabetes”.[2] The loss of beta cells is caused by an autoimmune response.[16] The cause of this autoimmune response is unknown.[2] Although Type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it can also develop in adults.[17]
Type 2 diabetes begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.[2] As the disease progresses, a lack of insulin may also develop.[18] This form was previously referred to as “non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” or “adult-onset diabetes”.[2] Type 2 diabetes is more common in older adults, but a significant increase in the prevalence of obesity among children has led to more cases of type 2 diabetes in younger people.[19] The most common cause is a combination of excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.[2]
Gestational diabetes is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.[2] In women with gestational diabetes, blood sugar usually returns to normal soon after delivery. However, women who had gestational diabetes during pregnancy have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.[20]

Type 1 diabetes must be managed with insulin injections.[2] Prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes involves maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco.[2] Type 2 diabetes may be treated with oral antidiabetic medications, with or without insulin.[21] Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot and eye care are important for people with the disease.[2] Insulin and some oral medications can cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia).[22] Weight loss surgery in those with obesity is sometimes an effective measure in those with type 2 diabetes.[23] Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth of the baby.[24]

As of 2019, an estimated 463 million people had diabetes worldwide (8.8% of the adult population), with type 2 diabetes making up about 90% of the cases.[11] Rates are similar in women and men.[25] Trends suggest that rates will continue to rise.[11] Diabetes at least doubles a person’s risk of early death.[2] In 2019, diabetes resulted in approximately 4.2 million deaths.[11] It is the 7th leading cause of death globally.[26][27] The global economic cost of diabetes-related health expenditure in 2017 was estimated at US$727 billion.[11] In the United States, diabetes cost nearly US$327 billion in 2017.[28] Average medical expenditures among people with diabetes are about 2.3 times higher.[29]